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Naiman cites the late-evening use of tablets, smartphones, computers, and artificial light in general, along with early alarms and early risings, which cut into REM sleep, most of which happens in the second half of your sleep time. Alcohol, for instance, permits the release of hormones that are known to interrupt REM and, therefore, dreaming. While Naiman says that a glass of wine is fine, too many people drink an inordinate amount.

The biggest takeaway from the paper? But if we do, says Naiman, we will not only reap all of the physiological benefits associated with dreaming and REM sleep—we can also expand our perceptual processes, become less rigid, and see life through more artistic eyes. Dreams can also reveal some surprising things about who we are. Seems to beg the question against contextualism. I take it the question of radical scepticism is irrelevant to what you're asking, in any case. A radical sceptic can consistently claim that there is some reliable signal distinguishing what we call dreaming from what we call being awake; she might hold that what we don't know is whether both these experiences are not contained within an embracing meta-dream and that knowledge is closed under entailment.

The Coral - Dreaming Of You (Director's Cut)

I used to have nightmares when I was young and it was necessary to train myself to be able to identify the dream while I was in the dream in order to realise that I could regain conrol. Which raises the question if we are in a dream now would we get matrix like effects where we can fly etc To know we are dreaming or not dreaming, we must agree on a definition of"dreaming".

I could make the case that I've never been in a dream as intelligently as I could make the case that I've never been awake.

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Since none of us can absolutely prove if and when we are dreaming or not , we should define what dream means to us as individuals and let everyone else find their own path or not. I look forward to your reply Of course, we might be mistaken, but this only happens infrequently, and always when we're alseep. Which just goes to show that it's best to philosophize when one's awake! Regards, Kevin. Fun question!

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Here are a few thoughts. Eric's question was: how do you know you're not dreaming? Several of the comments, however, addressed this question instead: how do you know, when you're dreaming, that you are dreaming? The two questions are independent in a way that it is easy to fail to appreciate.

Maybe I can tell very reliably or even infallibly that I'm not dreaming when I'm not dreaming, even though I can't recognize dreams from the inside. Dreamless sleep is like this -- it's easy to tell that you're not in it, but hard to tell that you are. Anibal likes the Norman Malcolm suggestion that dreaming is not an experience at all.

What Does It Mean When You Dream About Someone? This Expert Says It Might Not Be What You Think

In light of modern scientific developments about dreaming -- which Anibal alludes to -- this view is not plausible. Malcolm's view never took off because REM research refuted it. I think, for a variety of reasons, that dreaming is an imaginative activity. We do not see and believe things in dreams; instead, we imagine them. If this is right, then the way I know I'm not dreaming is closely related to the way that I know I have particular beliefs and visual experiences. And how do we do that?

Another good question That's an intriguing idea, Jonathan. I take it that on your view the belief that "I'm not dreaming" doesn't overturn a pre-existing belief. It's not that I first thought I wasn't dreaming, and only just now changed my mind. If this is right, then it might seem that we'll have trouble explaining why we feel relieved when we wake up from a bad dream or realize, in the midst of a bad dream, that it really is just a dream --why, for example, I experience relief upon realizing that my cat was not flattened by a car after all.

This seems to suggest that a previous belief was overturned. But this isn't too difficult to deal with. While I was dreaming about the cat, I most likely affirmed only that my cat was being flattened by a car, not the conjunction of "my cat is being flattened by a car" and "I'm not dreaming. Unless I'm getting close to waking up, I don't get the sense that I have control over my dreams.

I do get the sense, even if it's only that, that I have some control over my thought processes when I'm not dreaming. That is, I can led my mind in new directions relatively easily, which isn't the case when I dream. Can't one know one is not dreaming by satisfying the more externalist conditions for knowledge, e.

When i was in my twenties, i went through a period of not being able to differentiate between waking and dreaming. I happened to be living in a foreign country, and that made the experience all the more bizarre. It seemed to me that after a while, my mind "stabilized" for lack of a better word, and I began to be able to distinguish when I was awake and asleep, and while I still have lucid dreams and am startled and pleased to wake up, I'm pretty much sure that I'm awake when I'm awake. I have a problem with fainting because my heart shut off thus I have a pacemaker , but the interesting thing is that when I first become conscious again I am not dreaming, but I think I am.

At the very instant that I become aware I hear voices and then I see color, but none of it makes sense. It's like some sort of raw experience of sound and color that my brain has not compiled into meaningful experience. Then I start to be able to cognize the input and I think I must be dreaming because it doesn't make sense.

I usually have some sort of internal dialog that says "this is a dream. Then it starts to make sense.

At that point the force of the situation causes me to realize that I am awake, but then it's hard to make sense of how I got here. For instance, I was standing up in the door of a bus then I was lying in a gutter with people looking down at me. The discontinuity of the situation is what makes me feel like I'm dreaming. Only when I can remember my past and connect where I am now to where I was a minute ago or however long ago it was , then I can overcome the dream feeling of the incident.

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For me, non-dream states usually have a kind of continuity and force that dreams do not have. Especially as I start to move around or at least move my head. Wow, thanks for all the interesting comments, folks! Let me take them a few at a time. Later today, I'll post some of my own reflections on the main page. Genius: I take it from your first two paragraphs that your suggestions fall into two general categories: a. I'm a little confused by the last paragraph in your first comment, though. It seems to conflict with a.

But I think your first paragraphs more directly address my intended question. I didn't mean to ask about matrix-like skepticism or dreams within dreams. Kenf and genius: The following seems like a different sort of test from genius's a and b , though related: c.

What Does It Mean When You Dream About Someone? This Expert Says It Might Not Be What You Think

Sammy D. It's also possible that I'm a brain in a vat being manipulated by genius scientists from Alpha Centauri, and it's possible that the whole world was created 5 minutes ago with memories, history books, fossil records, etc. But these possibilities seem strange or remote, in a way, whereas dreaming is quite common. And yet here I am, and most of us are, quite rightly confident that I'm, and we're, awake. What is the basis of this confidence? Now if you really aren't confident that you're awake, that's a different matter!

Anibal: It's been a long time since I looked at the Malcolm book, but what stuck with me from it is what Jonathan Ichikawa says about it in a later comment: That dreaming is not an experience at all but rather we sometimes confabulate stories when we awake. This fits nicely with his behaviorism. In fact, my impression back when I was reading Malcolm was that he was the only genuine major philosophical behaviorist -- not Ryle, not Wittgenstein.

But if I start getting serious about the epistemology of dreams, I'll definitely have to read him again! Steve: I'm not sure I understand your suggestions. What you describe as a difference "when I'm awake I never have the thought, 'Maybe this is just a dream'; nor do I have lucid dreaming" -- seems to me rather to be a similarity: In neither dreaming nor waking do you think about the possibility that you are dreaming. I'm sure I'm just missing the difference you were meaning to convey.

I'm afraid I also don't fully understand the suggestion that we're dreaming when we're awake. There are a variety of different things that could mean Kenf: Whoops, sorry I forgot to reply to your second comment when I replied to your first comment above! That's a very nice point you make: You're not aware that you're dreaming during the dream, but that doesn't imply that you believe the dream is real, since the latter involves something else -- you call it a level of conscious analysis -- beyond simply accepting the unfolding of apparent events.

I'd add the suggestion that in waking life also we generally accept the unfolding of events without consciously analyzing the question of whether they are real -- except when thinking about topics like this! But then one question is this: If one does pause to do that analysis, will one generally get the right answer, and on what basis? The thing about waking reality is that it connects with seamlessly with our memories and conceptions about how the world works.